Broods of attractive three-spined stickleback males require greater paternal care
The relationship between egg number and survival in nests of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus was tested in the field. Nests were deprived of paternal care during a variable period by removal of the father while preventing egg predation by protection of the nest by a net. Upon male removal, a number of male traits were quantified. Nest-content variables and embryo survival were assessed at the end of the deprivation period. Proportional egg mortality was significantly positively correlated with the length of the deprivation period, the number of eggs present in the nest and egg size, thus suggesting that nests with more and larger eggs need more paternal care. Males with the most symmetrical ventral spines achieved the highest reproductive success as measured by the number of eggs in the nest. In addition, their nests contained relatively larger eggs. Spine length symmetry correlated with the blue intensity of the eye thus giving females several cues to assess male quality.