The behavioural and physiological response of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. to short-term acute hypoxia
The average rate of swimming speed and the physiological status or stress of individual Atlantic cod Gadus morhua was monitored in response to short-term acute (STA) hypoxia (i.e. partial pressure of oxygen, P- O 2 , reduced from 20·9 to 4·3 kPa within 1 h at 10° C). The STA hypoxic response of Atlantic cod was associated with a large primary increase (+29%) and a large secondary decrease (−54%) in swimming speed as well as major physiological stress (e.g. plasma cortisol = 214·7 ng ml−1 and blood lactate = 2·41 mmol l−1).