The ontogeny of haematopoiesis in the marine teleost Leiostomus xanthurus and a comparison of the site of initial haematopoiesis with Opsanus tau
Abstract:The ontogeny of haematopoiesis in the perciform fish, spot Leiostomus xanthurus, differed from that reported as the norm for fishes, as exemplified by the cypriniform zebrafish Danio rerio, and observed in the batrachoidiform oyster toadfish Opsanus tau. Erythropoiesis in spot was first evident in the head kidney of yolk‐sac larvae 3 days after hatching (DAH). No embryonic intermediate cell mass (ICM) of primitive stem cells or blood islands on the yolk were apparent within embryos. Erythrocytes were first evident in circulation near the completion of yolk absorption, c. 5 DAH, when larvae were c. 2·0 mm notochord length (LN). Erythrocyte abundance increased rapidly with larval development for c. 14 to 16 DAH, then became highly variable following changes in cardiac chamber morphology and volume. Erythrocytic haemoglobin (Hb) was not detected within whole larvae until they were 12 DAH or c. 3·1 mm LN, well after yolk and oil‐globule absorption. The Hb was not quantified until larvae were >47 DAH or >7 mm standard length. The delayed appearance of erythrocytes and Hb in spot was similar to that reported for other marine fishes with small embryos and larvae. In oyster toadfish, a marine teleost that exhibits large embryos and larvae, the ICM and Hb were first evident in two bilateral slips of erythropoietic tissue in the embryos, c. 5 days after fertilization. Soon thereafter, erythrocytes were evident in the heart, and peripheral and vitelline circulation. Initial haematopoiesis in oyster toadfish conformed with that described for zebrafish. While the genes that code for the development of haematopoiesis are conserved among vertebrates, gene expression lacks phylogenetic pattern among fishes and appears to conform more closely with phenotypic expression related to physiological and ecological influences of overall body size and environmental oxygen availability.
Document Type: Regular Paper
Affiliations: 1: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Fisheries and Habitat Research, 101 Pivers Island Road, Beaufort, NC 28516-9722, U.S.A., 2: Duke University, Department of Cell Biology Medical Center and Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Department of the Environment, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC 28516-9722, U.S.A. and 3: Duke University, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Department of the Environment, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC 28516-9722, U.S.A.
Publication date: 2005-09-01