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Effects of temperature and delayed initial feeding on the survival and growth of Japanese flounder larvae

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The effects of the timing of initial feeding (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 days after yolk exhaustion) and temperature (15, 18 and 21° C) on the point‐of‐no‐return (PNR), survival and growth of laboratory‐reared Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus larvae were studied under controlled conditions. The larvae reached PNR on 7·7, 5·2 and 4·2 days‐post‐hatching (dph) at 15, 18 and 21° C, respectively. At each temperature, larval growth did not differ significantly among the delayed initial feedings 1 day before PNR but decreased significantly in larvae first fed after that. In the treatments where initial feeding was equally delayed, larvae grew significantly faster at 18 and 21° C than at 15° C. The larvae survived apparently better at 15 and 18° C than at 21° C when initial feeding was equally delayed. At each temperature, survival of the larvae first fed before PNR did not differ noticeably, while delayed initial feeding after that apparently reduced their survival. These results indicated that there existed a negatively temperature‐dependent PNR in the Japanese flounder larvae. Survival and growth of the larvae strongly depended on temperature as well as the timing of initial feeding. High temperature accelerated the yolk exhaustion and growth of the larvae and thus reduced their starvation tolerance and survival. To avoid potential starvation mortality and obtain good growth, the Japanese flounder larvae must establish successful initial feeding within 2 days after yolk exhaustion at 15° C and within 1 day at both 18 and 21° C.

Keywords: delayed initial feeding; first‐feeding flounder larvae; growth and survival; point‐of‐no‐return (PNR); temperature

Document Type: Regular Paper


Affiliations: 1: Field Science Education and Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 625, Japan and 2: Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan 3: Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Minamidai 1-15-1, Tokyo 164-8639, Japan,

Publication date: 2005-02-01

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