Differences in the energetic cost of swimming in turbulent flow between wild, farmed and domesticated juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar
Abstract:Domestication has been shown to have an effect on morphology and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). We compared swimming costs of three groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon subject to different levels of domestication: (1) wild fish; (2) first generation farmed fish origination from wild genitors; and (2) seventh generation farmed fish originating from Norwegian aquaculture stocks. We assessed swimming costs under two types of turbulent flow (one mean flow velocity of 23 cm s−1 and two standard deviations of flow velocity of 5 and 8 cm s−1). Respirometry experiments were conducted with fish in a mass range of 5–15 g wet at a water temperature of 15° C. Our results confirm (1) that net swimming costs are affected by different levels of turbulence such that, for a given mean flow velocity, fish spent 1·5‐times more energy as turbulence increased, (2) that domesticated fish differed in their morphology (having deeper bodies and smaller fins) and in their net swimming costs (being up to 30·3% higher than for wild fish) and (3) that swimming cost models developed for farmed fish may be also be applied to wild fish in turbulent environments.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Département de sciences biologiques, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succursale Centre ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7, Canada; 2: Département de géographie, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succursale Centre ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7, Canada
Publication date: December 1, 2004