In a first set of experiments, intracerebroventricular (ICV) treatment of 1 μl 100 g−1 body mass of Cortland saline containing different doses (1–20 nmol μl−1) of arginine vasotocin (AVT) produced after 180 min dose‐dependent changes in levels of brain neurotransmitters in several brain regions and pituitary of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Thus, an enhancement of serotonergic and dopaminergic activity, together with a decreased noradrenergic activity, were observed both in the hypothalamus and pituitary of AVT‐treated fish. In the other brain regions assessed, only increased serotonergic activity in the optic lobes, and decreased dopaminergic activity in the telencephalon of AVT‐treated fish were noticed. Changes observed in monoamine levels resemble those observed during osmotic adaptation of euryhaline fishes. In a second set of experiments, fish were ICV injected with AVT as described above to assess changes in several variables of brain energy metabolism. The results obtained show a dose‐dependent enhancement of brain glycogenolytic potential in the brain of AVT‐treated fish, that again resemble the changes observed in euryhaline fishes during osmotic acclimation.