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The scarecrow toadfish: habitat, abundance and size at maturity at Bimini, Bahamas

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Six scarecrow toadfish Opsanus phobetron were found in the stomachs of five juvenile lemon sharks Negaprion brevirostris, and subsequent sampling yielded 29 O. phobetron specimens from mangroves (45% of toadfish), conch shells (28%), and seagrass beds (25%) around Bimini, Bahamas during the winter. The presence of large numbers of scarecrow toadfish including mature females, when the water temperature was >22° C, suggests that this is a successful breeding tropical population and not a glacial relict.

Keywords: Opsanus phobetron;; lemon shark; mangrove; scarecrow toadfish; sexual maturity; temperature

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA, U.K.,

Publication date: 2004-01-01

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