Monitoring adult Eretmocerus mundus, Encarsia lutea and Bemisia tabaci with yellow sticky traps in cotton Gossypium hirsutum
The efficiency of yellow sticky traps for estimating adult population dynamics of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hom., Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoids Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, Encarsia lutea (Masi) (Hym., Aphelinidae) was examined in cotton in choice and no-choice studies in Çukurova, Turkey in 2004 and 2005. In the no-choice study, traps were suspended individually on the third, fifth or eighth main stem node branches from the tops of cotton plants. For the choice study, three traps were suspended on the same individual node branches on different plants. Trap captures were counted weekly. Mean (±SE) numbers of B. tabaci captured on traps were higher in no-choice (max.: 697.8 ± 55.6) compared with choice (max.: 533.3 ± 47.4) studies each year. Population fluctuation patterns of E. mundus and E. lutea adults were similar to those of adult B. tabaci on traps with low weekly mean numbers occurring initially and increasing to peak levels in mid-August, then decreasing in later weeks of the studies. The relationship between weekly mean numbers of B. tabaci and E. lutea was greater than the relationship between B. tabaci and E. mundus. Mean numbers of E. mundus and E. lutea on traps were higher at the third main stem nodes than traps suspended on the fifth or eighth node. Mean numbers of E. lutea pupae were usually higher than E. mundus from the first sampling date throughout the end of the growing season on leaves. The relationship between parasitoid pupae and adults captured in traps is discussed.