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Genetic variation and biogeography of the disjunct Vitis subg. Vitis (Vitaceae)

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Abstract Aim 

Vitis subg. Vitis provides an example of a plant disjunction occurring in the Northern Hemisphere. It shows broad morphological variation but is assumed to be a species complex with limited genetic differentiation. Based on a comprehensive sampling of taxa and polymorphism in both chloroplast and nuclear DNA, we assessed genetic variation within this subgenus. Our aims were to clarify the relationships among species and to examine their historical biogeography. Location 

Asia, Europe, North America. Methods 

We analysed a total of 30 species and putative hybrids from subgenus Vitis and examined the infra-specific variation in some species. Polymorphism in chloroplast DNA was assessed in trnL and trnH–psbA–trnK sequences (c. 2170 bp) and in 15 microsatellite loci. We also obtained nuclear data for size variation at 24 microsatellite loci. Phylogenetic inference was performed with Bayesian analyses. A maximum parsimony network was constructed to depict the evolutionary relationships among haplotypes, and microsatellite data were also subjected to hierarchical clustering analysis using the Ward distance. In addition, we assessed size homoplasy by sequencing both chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite loci. Results 

Chloroplast polymorphisms resolved subgenus Vitis as a monophyletic group with limited genetic variation. The ancestral haplotypes were found in Eurasia. American taxa all harboured derived haplotypes. Most of them formed a monophyletic group that did not include Vitis californica. The four main haplotypes in Vitis vinifera corresponded to two different origins. Nuclear microsatellites indicated that genetic variation was especially large in North America. Asian species exhibited a lower level of nuclear divergence and the European V. vinifera corresponded to a differentiated nuclear lineage. Main conclusions 

We obtained some evidence that subgenus Vitis has an Asian origin and then dispersed to Europe and North America. Geographic separation was followed by diversification, presumably during the Pleistocene, resulting in phylogeographic patterns similar to other biota. In contrast to chloroplast DNA, nuclear DNA shows a larger than expected genetic variation. Our molecular data also highlight the need to re-examine certain aspects of the current subgeneric classification.
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Keywords: Asia; Europe; North America; Vitis; biogeography; chloroplast DNA sequences; chloroplast microsatellites; grapevine; nuclear microsatellites; plant disjunction

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), UMR 1097 (DIAPC), Diversité Génétique et Génomique de la Vigne, 2 Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier, France 2: Montpellier SupAgro, UMR 1097 (DIAPC), Diversité Génétique et Génomique de la Vigne, 2 Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier, France

Publication date: 01 March 2011

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