Glacial refugia for summer-green trees in Europe and south-west Asia as proposed by ECHAM3 time-slice atmospheric model simulations

$48.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Download / Buy Article:


Abstract Aim 

To generate maps of potential refugia for summer-green trees during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Locations 

Southern Europe and south-western Asia. Methods 

Time-slice simulations of the atmospheric climate with the ECHAM3 model are used for the LGM. Limiting factors beyond which cool and warm groups of deciduous trees cannot grow (such as temperature in growing degree days, minimum monthly temperature and precipitation in summer) are chosen. A limited validation by fossil pollen and charcoal records from LGM sites was done. Results 

Two sets of maps extending from Europe to the Caspian region for cool and warm summer-green trees are presented. Three criteria are combined using contour lines to indicate confidence levels. Small areas within the three southern peninsulas of Europe (Spain, Italy and Greece) are highlighted as possible refugia for summer-green trees. Further, areas that have remained poorly known are now proposed as refugia, including the Sakarya–Kerempe region in northern Turkey, the east coast of the Black Sea and the area south of the Caspian Sea. Main conclusions 

The maps produced in this study could be used to facilitate better long-term management for the protection of European and south-western Asian biodiversity.

Keywords: Biodiversity; Europe; LGM climate; climatic model; glacial refugia; palynology; summer-green trees

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany

Publication date: December 1, 2007

Related content



Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more