Phase Structure, Microstructure, and Electrical Properties of Sb-Modified (K, Na, Li) (Nb, Ta) O3 Piezoelectric Ceramics
Abstract:Lead-free (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)(Nb0.80−xTa0.20Sbx)O3 piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by the ordinary sintering method. The much higher Pauling electronegativity of Sb compared with Nb makes the ceramics more covalent. By increasing x from 0.00 to 0.06, the phase structure of the ceramics changed from the tetragonal to the pseudocubic phase, and both the bands in the Raman scattering spectra shifted to lower frequency numbers. The grain growth of the ceramics was improved by substituting Sb5+ for Nb5+. By increasing x, the dielectric properties were optimized and the variation of dielectric constants before and after poling became smaller. Only the tetragonal–cubic phase transition was observed above room temperature in all the r–T curves. The degree of diffuseness increased from 1.29 at x=0.00 to 1.96 at x=0.06, indicating that the ceramics at x=0.06 changed to an approximate ideal relaxor ferroelectric. The temperature dependences of fr and kp became better by increasing x properly. Significantly, the ceramics with x between 0.00 and 0.04 had high density and outstanding electrical properties (d33=241–272pC/N, kp=0.42–0.52, r=1258–1591, tan =0.015–0.025, Tc=280°–355°C, Ec=10.62–12.60 kV/cm, and Pr=16.19–20.13 C/cm2). Besides, the underlying mechanism for variations of the electrical properties due to Sb5+ substitution was explained in this work.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710062, Shaanxi, China
Publication date: 2008-07-01