Chemical Solution-Deposited BaTiO3 Thin Films on Ni Foils: Microstructure and Interfaces
The microstructure and interface quality of chemical solution-deposited BaTiO3 films on Ni foil were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The microstructures were found to consist of equiaxed and uniform grains, with average grain sizes for rapid thermal-annealed films of 12 nm (700°C) and 18 nm (750°C), respectively. Films furnace annealed at 1000°C after a rapid thermal anneal at 700°C showed a grain size of 42 nm. It is believed that the final grain size is limited by the highly reducing atmosphere and also by the existence of well-developed crystallites resulting from the rapid thermal annealing step. Spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy identified the existence of residual carbon and variations in the oxygen content in BaTiO3 films. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed an interfacial layer of Ni–Ba alloy (5–10 nm thick) between the BaTiO3 and Ni foil.
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