The presence of vanadium, phosphorus, and sodium impurities in petcoke and coal/petcoke blends used in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants warrants a clear understanding of high-temperature material degradation for the development of fuel-flexible gas turbines. In this study, degradation reactions of free-standing air plasma-sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in contact with vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5), and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) were investigated at temperatures up to 1200°C. Phase transformations and microstructural development were examined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Molten V2O5 reacted with solid YSZ to form zirconium pyrovanadate (ZrV2O7) at temperatures below 747°C. However, at temperatures above 747°C, molten V2O5 reacted with YSZ to form yttrium vanadate (YVO4). The formation of YVO4 led to the depletion of the Y2O3 stabilizer and deleterious transformation to the monoclinic ZrO2 phase. In addition, studies on YSZ degradation by Na2SO4 and a Na2SO4+V2O5 mixture (50–50 mol%) showed that Na2SO4 itself had no effect on the degradation of YSZ. However, in the presence of V2O5 at high temperatures, Na2SO4 forms vanadate compounds having a lower melting point such as sodium metavanadate (610°C), which was found to degrade YSZ by the formation of YVO4 at a relatively lower temperature of 700°C. P2O5 was found to react with APS YSZ by the formation of zirconium pyrophosphate (ZrP2O7) at all the temperatures studied. At temperatures as low as 200°C and as high as 1200°C, molten P2O5 was observed to react with solid YSZ to yield ZrP2O7, which led to the depletion of ZrO2 in YSZ (i.e., enrichment of Y2O3 in t′-YSZ) that promoted the formation of the fluorite-cubic ZrO2 phase.
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Document Type: Research Article
Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Centre (AMPAC) and Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816
Office of Research, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003
Publication date: 2007-11-01