Spark Plasma Sintering Behavior of Nano-Sized (Ba, Sr)TiO3 Powders: Determination of Sintering Parameters Yielding Nanostructured Ceramics
Nano-powders of BaTiO3, SrTiO3, Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST64), and a mixture of the composition (BaTiO3)0.6(SrTiO3)04 with particle sizes in the range of 60–80 nm were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). An experimental procedure is outlined that allows the determination of a “kinetic window,” defined as the temperature interval within which the densification process can be kinetically separated from the grain growth one, enabling preparation of dense nanostructured ceramics. The width of this window varied from almost zero for BST64 to 125°C for the (BaTiO3)0.6(SrTiO3)0.4 mixture. During the densification (sintering) of the (BaTiO3)0.6(SrTiO3)04 mixture, BST64 is formed. The main part of this reaction occurs in a fully densified body through which suggesting that the constitutional phase(s) have a self-pinning effect on the grain growth.
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