Formation Mechanisms of Tetragonal Barium Titanate Nanoparticles in Alkoxide–Hydroxide Sol-Precipitation Synthesis
Abstract:The early stage of barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticle formation is investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) using synchrotron radiation. BaTiO3 nanoparticles are synthesized via dissolution of barium hydroxide octahydrate and hydrolysis of titanium (IV) isopropoxide in isopropanol. In the course of raising the temperature of the alkoxide–hydroxide mixture solution to 80°C, in situ synchrotron XRD reveals that BaTiO3 nanocrystals smaller than 6 nm begin to nucleate at 50°C without intermediate TiO2 anatase formation, and Ti K edge absorption spectra also confirm the formation of corner-sharing TiO6 octahedra at 60°C. The average size of BaTiO3 precipitates increases to about 7.5 nm at 80°C. The synthesized nanopowders show an anomalously high tetragonality according to the Rietveld refinement of synchrotron XRD data.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784, Korea 2: Beamline Department, Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784, Korea
Publication date: 2006-06-01