The sliding-wear behavior of Al2O3–SiC–Al composites prepared by melt oxidation against a steel counterface has been recorded in a pin-on-disk machine. At high speeds and pressures (10 m/s, 20 MPa), friction and wear appear to be principally controlled by the in-situ formation of an interfacial film that consists of a layer of Fe3O4. The formation of this film is examined as a function of sliding speed, lubrication, and composite microstructure. A model is proposed in which high surface temperatures cause the preferential extrusion of aluminum from the composite onto the pin/disk interface. This promotes the adhesive pickup of iron and its oxidation to form a stable tribologically beneficial layer of Fe3O4.