Internal Oxidation of Ce3+-BaTiO3 Solid Solutions
Abstract:The reoxidation process in highly Ce3+-doped BaTiO3 ceramics was studied using TEM. Samples of two different types of solid solutions, Ba1−XCe3+XTi1−X/4(VTi)X/4O3 and Ba1−XCe3+XTi4+1−XTi3+XO3, were prepared by sintering oxide mixtures in air and in a reducing atmosphere, respectively. The solid solutions were reoxidized by annealing in air at high temperatures (1000°—1100°C). As a result of internal oxidation of Ce3+ and Ti3+, fluorite CeO2 and monoclinic Ba6Ti17O40 phases were precipitated in the perovskite matrix. In Ba1−XCe3+XTi1−X/4(VTi)X/4O3 solid solution precipitates nucleate heterogeneously at grain boundaries and at extended defects inside the grains, whereas in Ba1−XCe3+XTi4+1−XTi3+XO3 solid solution precipitates are nucleated mainly homogeneously inside reoxidized perovskite grains. The form of the precipitates and their orientational relationship with the matrix, as well as the mechanism of internal oxidation, are discussed.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: J. Stefan Institute, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Publication date: 1997-01-01