Topology of the nervous system of Notommata copeus (Rotifera: Monogononta) revealed with anti-FMRFamide, -SCPb, and -serotonin (5-HT) immunohistochemistry
The nervous system of the benthic freshwater rotifer, Notommata copeus, was examined using antibody probes, epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy, and digital imaging to highlight similarities with other monogonont rotifers. Immunoreactivity to anti-FMRFamide (Phe–Met–Arg–Phe–NH2), -SCPb (small cardioactive peptide b), and -serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) was present in the central, peripheral, and stomatogastric nervous system. Specifically, anti-FMRFamide and -SCPb staining was abundant in perikarya and neurites of the cerebral ganglion, ventrolateral nerve cords, and mastax. In addition, a single loop-like neurite was present in between the nerve cords at the posterior end of the body. Serotonergic neurites were also abundant, and highlighted several cerebral pathways that included connections to the nerve cords and possibly the mastax. Novel neural pathways were also present in the posterior trunk region, where serotonergic neurites innervated the foot and lateral body wall. The results presented herein also highlight the utility of 3D visualization software to gain further insights into the organization and architecture of the rotifer cerebral ganglion.