Translating innate response into long-lasting antibody response by the intrinsic antigen-adjuvant properties of papaya mosaic virus
Identifying the properties of a molecule involved in the efficient activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses that lead to long-lasting immunity is crucial for vaccine and adjuvant development. Here we show that the papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) is recognized by the immune system as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and as an antigen in mice (Pamptigen). A single immunization of PapMV without added adjuvant efficiently induced both cellular and specific long-lasting antibody responses. PapMV also efficiently activated innate immune responses, as shown by the induction of lipid raft aggregation, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules on dendritic cells and macrophages, and long-lasting adjuvant effects upon the specific antibody responses to model antigens. PapMV mixed with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) outer membrane protein C increased its protective capacity against challenge with S. typhi, revealing the intrinsic adjuvant properties of PapMV in the induction of immunity. Antigen-presenting cells loaded with PapMV efficiently induced antibody responses in vivo, which may link the innate and adaptive responses observed. PapMV recognition as a Pamptigen might be translated into long-lasting antibody responses and protection observed. These properties could be used in the development of new vaccine platforms.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Infectology Research Centre, Laval University, Quebec, Canada 2: Faculty of Chemistry, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City 3: Molecular Biomedicine Department, Center for Advance Studies and Research (CINVESTAV) of the National Polythechnic Institute (IPN), Mexico City 4: Department of Cell Biology, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico City 5: Department of Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM, Mexico City 6: Medical Research Unit on Immunochemistry, Specialties Hospital, National Medical Centre ‘Siglo XXI’. Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS), Mexico City
Publication date: 01 June 2008