Abstract Background: High concentration oxygen is commonly administered during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). The aim of this study was to determine the association between oxygen, severity markers
and poor outcomes in AECOPD. Methods: In an audit of patients with AECOPD arriving by ambulance to the Emergency Department of Wellington Hospital, details of oxygen administration, clinical outcomes and severity markers were documented. The main outcome measure was a composite of
death, assisted ventilation, or respiratory failure. Associations between oxygen therapy, severity markers and poor clinical outcomes were assessed by logistic regression. Results: Of 250 patients 77 (31%) died, required assisted ventilation or were in respiratory failure. Increased
oxygen flow was associated with increasing risk of death, assisted ventilation or respiratory failure with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.2 (95% CI 1.0–1.4) per 1 L/min oxygen flow. Increasing PaO2 was associated with a greater risk of a poor outcome with an OR of 1.1 (95% CI
1.0–1.3) per 10 mmHg higher PaO2. Home oxygen (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.5–5.1), previous respiratory failure (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5–4.6), previous ventilation (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7–5.9) and home nebulizer use (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4–4.3) were associated with an
increased risk of a poor outcome. Conclusion: In AECOPD high flow oxygen in the ambulance is associated with poor clinical outcomes. A number of easily identified markers of chronic disease severity indicate an increased risk of a poor clinical outcome.