Abstract Background: Proteinuria reflects disrupted renal function in which enhanced immuno-inflammation activity plays a key role. So far, information concerning the relations between proteinuria and peripheral different leucocyte counts is limited. We thereby conducted this study aiming to obtain comprehensive information of the issue. Methods: Study subjects were participants of a health check programme from 2000 to 2002. Additional two enrolment criteria were (i) leucocyte analysis was checked with a same blood cell counter and (ii) urinalysis showed no pyuria or haematuria. Data of subjects were retrospectively collected and analysed by usingsasprogram. Results: Higher neutrophil and monocyte counts, but not lymphocyte count, were significantly associated with both the presence and the severity of proteinuria (all P < 0.0001, n= 12 225). Such associations maintained significant after adjustments of age, sex, body mass index, mean blood pressure and blood levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine (all P≤ 0.001, n= 12 225). There was a sharp increase in the incidence of proteinuria in association with a neutrophil count ≥4.50 × 109/L (P≤ 0.0001). Conclusion: Our study showed that in apparently normal adults the presence and the severity of proteinuria could be reflected by the peripheral neutrophil and monocyte counts, but not the lymphocyte count. These findings, together with the documented inflammatory basis of proteinuria and the diverse pathophysiological roles of differential leucocytes, suggest that peripheral differential leucocyte counting may be useful in predicting the course of an existing proteinuria. Perspective longitudinal follow-up studies are needed to test this presumption.