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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: state-of-the-art review, with focus on the management of outflow obstruction

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Significant advances in our understanding and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have been made in the last decade, as the complex genetics and ­phenotype−genotype correlations that characterize the disease are gradually unravelled. The well-described clinical heterogeneity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is now understood to be based on profound genetic vari­ability, with at least 10 genes and over 150 mutations implicated. Several new therapeutic tools have entered clinical practice. The implantable cardioverter-­defibrillator is now strongly indicated in those at high risk of sudden arrhythmic death. Our ability to abort sudden death in this subgroup has placed added emphasis on risk stratification in newly diagnosed patients. New procedures have also been developed for the relief of outflow obstruction in patients with refractory symptoms and a significant subaortic outflow gradient. Although not as efficacious as the ‘gold-standard’­surgical myectomy−myotomy, dual-chamber pacemaker implantation can be of modest benefit in select patients. Percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation is an emerging catheter-based procedure for the relief of left ventricular outflow obstruction. Long-term follow-up data are still awaited. However, intermediate-term results suggest equivalent efficacy to surgical ­myectomy−myotomy. (Intern Med J 2003; 33: 521−529)

Keywords: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy; outflow ­obstruction; percutaneous transluminal septal ­myocardial ablation

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Department of Cardiology, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Publication date: November 1, 2003

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