An approach to laser dressing of alumina grinding wheels is proposed based on solidification microstructures associated with rapid cooling rates obtained in laser surface processing. Laser dressing of alumina grinding wheels forms surface microstructures characterized by multifaceted grains that are expected to facilitate the micro-scale material removal during precision machining. A detailed investigation of variation of grain size and melt depth with laser fluence is conducted. The results are correlated with calculated cooling rates derived from a thermal model. In addition, based on microscopic observations, the formation of surface grains by stacking of individual multifaceted grains formed during laser dressing is suggested.