A novel ‘permanent’ acid-type hair color made possible with dye–metal ion complex technology
The advantages and disadvantages of oxidative permanent and acid-type semi-permanent hair colors are evident. The former provides a long-lasting ‘permanent’ color, while the latter imparts less damage to the hair. We developed a novel acid-type hair color technology that can allow an acid dye and a metal ion to form a complex inside the hair similar to the oxidative hair color. It is well known that acid dye diffuses into the hair and creates an ionic bond with the positively charged amino acid residues of hair protein. However, the dye can be extracted easily from the hair by daily shampooing due to the weakness of the bond. In order to strengthen this bond and to prevent the extraction of the dye by shampooing, an aluminum chloride ion was chosen as the metal ion component to form the dye–metal complex. A proper composition of penetration enhancers, benzyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol, was required to allow acid dyes to interact with the aluminum chloride ion after each component penetrates deeply into the hair to form a complex inside the hair. To provide color brightness and a color longevity effect to hair color, glycolic acid was also selected due to the observation that a weak acid with a small molecular weight would enhance those effects.
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