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Kinetic Studies on Urea Extraction with Hemodialysis in Adolescents by On-line Monitoring of Dialysate Urea

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Kinetics of urea extraction during a single dialysis session in children are unknown, because analysis of solutes in dialysate is difficult due to their extreme dilution. >Objective: 

A novel urea monitor of the Gambro Company might be of help in studying urea kinetics also in children. Methods: 

We studied 107 urea kinetics in 5 adolescents aged 13–19 years, weighing 26–58 kg, and looked for influences of membrane size, blood flow, and duration of one dialysis session. Urea measurement applies to the change of electric dialysate conductivity due to ionization because of urea splitting by urease. Bicarbonate dialysis regimen was 4–5 h each, 3 times a week, using polysulfone high-flux dialyzers (Fresenius F60 or F80, depending on body size). Results: 

Average 4-h urea Kt/V values for F60 (n = 85) were 1.69±0.53 and for F80 (n = 21) 1.63±0.25, extracted urea mass was 16.0±5.4 g and 32.5±5.4 g, respectively (p < 0.05); Kt/V urea results for blood flows of 180–220 mL/min were 1.36±0.52 and for <180 mL/min 1.10±0.43; extracted urea mass was 17.3±8.0 and 11.7±4.9 g, respectively (p < 0.05). Total average urea extraction ratio after 2 h of dialysis (n = 107) was 64.8±5.6%. Extraction ratio during the 4th h of dialysis was only 15.3±4.1% and during the 5th h not more than 9.0±3.6% of total urea extraction. Conclusion: 

Kinetics of urea extraction helps understanding dialysis processes in children. Adapting the size of the dialyzer according to body size raises urea extraction and maintains urea clearance Kt/V at the desired quality level. An inadequate blood flow lowers both urea extraction and urea clearance Kt/V. Prolonging dialysis beyond 4 h is, at least in concern of urea kinetic modelling, a rather ineffective means. We speculate that children with blood flow problems should be dialysed more often.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Department of Pediatric Nephrology, University Children's Hospital, Essen, Germany.

Publication date: 2004-01-01

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