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Unphysiology Is the Major Factor Influencing Cardiovascular Instability during Hemodialysis

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Hemodialysis is often complicated by cardiovascular instability (CVI). We studied factors contributing to this problem during 720 hemodialyses (HDs) in 20 patients; 480 dialyses were 6/week and 240 were 3/week. Methods: 

Dependent variables were increase in pulse rate (PR) and maximal (MAX) and overall (OV) fall of systolic blood pressure (BP). Independent variables were dialyses/week (DIAL), ultrafiltration (Uf), % of body weight (BW), pre-post BUN (ΔBUN), time on dialysis (T), speed of dialysis (K/V in mL min–1 kg–1 BW), target-postdialysis BW (Ta-Po BW), Kt/V, ΔPO4, Δbicarbonate, Δpotassium, ΔBUN, an ‘unphysiology index’ summing up changes in electrolytes, and BUN and BW during dialysis (UPI). The relations were analyzed by backward multiple regression analysis. Results: 

PR increased 0.5 ± 11/min; MAX BP fall was 23 ± 17 mmHg; OV BP fall was 12 ± 19 mmHg. In multiple stepwise backward regression analysis, independents in order of importance: PR = 38 – DIAL × 4 + T × 0.1 + Uf × 1.8 +ΔPO4 × 1.8 – UPI× 0.2 – K/V × 2, r = 0.30, p < 0.0001; MAX BP = UPI × 0.4 – ΔBUN × 0.3 + ΔPO4 × 2.6 + 11, r = 0.34, p < 0.0001; OV BP = UPI × 0.4 – ΔBUN × 0.3 +ΔPO4 × 2.7 + 1, r = 0.33, p < 0.0001. Conclusion: 

To prevent BP fall and tachycardia during hemodialysis, the most important factor to decrease is unphysiology, i.e., the oscillations in electrolytes, fluid spaces, and osmolality that occur during dialysis. The best way to do this is to dialyze patients daily. An unexpected finding worthy of further investigation was the large detrimental influence of ΔPO4 on CVI.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Aksys Ltd., Lincolnshire, IL 2: Loyola University Medical School, Chicago, IL 3: University of Washington, Seattle, WA, U.S.A.

Publication date: January 1, 2004

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