Which Parameter Is More Influential on the Development of Arteriosclerosis in Hemodialysis Patients?
Arteriosclerosis is characterized by stiffening of arteries. The incremental elastic modulus (Einc) measurement is a good marker of arterial wall stiffness. Arteriosclerosis is characterized by stiffening of arteries. Metabolic, inflammatory, and hemodynamic alterations cause structural changes and vascular complications in end-stage renal disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the factors that may affect the development of arteriosclerosis by measurement of Einc in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thirty-two patients (16 men and 16 women) on chronic HD with a mean age of 42.2 ± 19.3 (range, 15–80) were included in the study. The carotid Einc was measured to determine arteriosclerosis by high-resolution echo-tracking system. Einc measurement was calculated from transcutaneous measurements of carotid arterial internal diameter and wall thickness and carotid pulse pressure. Common carotid compliance (CCC) and distensibility (CCD) were determined from changes in carotid artery diameter during systole and simultaneously measured carotid pulse pressure. Serum levels of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), parathormone (PTH), ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), predialysis systolic blood pressure (SBP), predialysis diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), age, HD duration, CCC, and CCD were correlated with Einc in all patients. A significant positive correlation was found between Einc and age (r = 0.40, p < 0.02), SBP (r = 0.39, p < 0.02), PP (r = 0.40, p < 0.02), Ca (r = 0.43, p < 0.01), CRP (r = 0.38, p < 0.02). As expected, Einc was correlated inversely with CCD (r = −0.77, p < 0.0001). The correlation between Einc and HD duration, DBP, ferritin, P, PTH, and CCC was not significant. In conclusion, the stiffening of carotid artery in HD patients is related not only to hemodynamic changes (increased SBP and PP) but also to metabolic (increased Ca) and inflammatory (increased CRP) responses. Carotid Einc is an accepted independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Because of the positive correlation between Einc and serum Ca, vitamin D and Ca-containing P binder should be used carefully in HD patients.
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