An Empirically Based Implementation and Evaluation of a Hierarchical Model for Commuting Flows
This article provides an empirical evaluation of a hierarchical approach to modeling commuting flows. As the gravity family of spatial interaction models represents a benchmark for empirical evaluation, we begin by reviewing basic aspects of these models. The hierarchical modeling framework is the same that Thorsen, Ubøe, and Nævdal (1999) used. However, because some modifications are required to construct a more workable model, we undertake a relatively detailed presentation of the model, rather than merely referring to the presentation in Thorsen, Ubøe, and Nævdal (1999). The model uses a hierarchical specification of a transportation network and the individual search procedure. Journeys to work are determined by the effects of distance deterrence and of intervening opportunities, and by the location of potential destinations relative to alternatives at subsequent levels in a transportation network. The model calibration uses commuting data from a region in western Norway. The estimated parameter values are reasonable, and the explanatory power is very satisfactory when compared with the results of a competing destinations approach.
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