Skip to main content

Balancing protein ingredients in carp feeds to limit dischargeof phosphorus and nitrogen into water bodies

Buy Article:

$43.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Through a series of experiments, it has been demonstrated successfullythat an appropriate choice of ingredients is primary for achievinga reduction in phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) loading from carpculture. In this final study, four multi-ingredient diets were examined.In addition to the basal ingredients (fish meal 15%, corngluten meal 8%, defatted soybean meal 10%, blood meal3–5%), three of the test diets (PF, MM, and SP)contained 6% each of either poultry feather meal, meatmeal or soy protein concentrate, respectively, and the fourth diet(PMS) had each of the three aforementioned ingredients includedat 3%. These diets had crude protein < 35%,digestible energy > 3.5 kcal/g,available P between 0.65 and 0.66% and total P rangingfrom 1.26 to 1.36%. The diets were fed to juvenile carpduring a 12-week feeding trial. The highest growth was obtained forfish fed the MM diet. The absorption and retention rates of P werehigher for the PF diet, whereas these values for N did not showtreatment-related differences. The total discharges per ton fish productionwere estimated to range between 7.8 and 9.2 kg for P andbetween 39.1 and 40.7 kg for N. These were lower than thefigures for Lake Kasumigaura, a main carp culture site, indicatingthat proper balancing of protein ingredients aids in efficientlylowering emissions from aquaculture.
No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: alternative protein ingredients; aquaticenvironment; carp feed; nitrogen; phosphorus; waste discharge

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Aquatic Biosciences,Tokyo University of Fisheries, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan

Publication date: 2003-04-01

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more