Balancing protein ingredients in carp feeds to limit dischargeof phosphorus and nitrogen into water bodies
Through a series of experiments, it has been demonstrated successfullythat an appropriate choice of ingredients is primary for achievinga reduction in phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) loading from carpculture. In this final study, four multi-ingredient diets were examined.In addition to the basal ingredients (fish meal 15%, corngluten meal 8%, defatted soybean meal 10%, blood meal3–5%), three of the test diets (PF, MM, and SP)contained 6% each of either poultry feather meal, meatmeal or soy protein concentrate, respectively, and the fourth diet(PMS) had each of the three aforementioned ingredients includedat 3%. These diets had crude protein < 35%,digestible energy > 3.5 kcal/g,available P between 0.65 and 0.66% and total P rangingfrom 1.26 to 1.36%. The diets were fed to juvenile carpduring a 12-week feeding trial. The highest growth was obtained forfish fed the MM diet. The absorption and retention rates of P werehigher for the PF diet, whereas these values for N did not showtreatment-related differences. The total discharges per ton fish productionwere estimated to range between 7.8 and 9.2 kg for P andbetween 39.1 and 40.7 kg for N. These were lower than thefigures for Lake Kasumigaura, a main carp culture site, indicatingthat proper balancing of protein ingredients aids in efficientlylowering emissions from aquaculture.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Department of Aquatic Biosciences,Tokyo University of Fisheries, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan
Publication date: April 1, 2003