Improved carp diets based on plant protein sources reduceenvironmental phosphorus loading
As part of on-going efforts to reduce environmental phosphorus(P) and nitrogen (N) loading from culture systems, five experimentaldiets were formulated containing 5–15% of fishmeal (FM) and different levels of soy protein concentrate (10–20%),corn gluten meal (3–5%) and defatted soybean meal(2.0–8.5%). These diets had total P ranging between1.04 and 1.29% and available P between 0.62 and 0.63%.A FM-based (43%) commercial diet was used as the controland this diet had total P of 1.87% and available P of 0.82%.Waste loading was calculated after feeding the diets to 3.4 gcarp for 10 weeks. Feed gain ratios were not significantly differentfor fish fed control and experimental diets having 10–15% FM,but the protein efficiency ratio was lower for the control group.The rates of P absorption and retention in the experimental dietgroups were significantly higher than those of the control group.The lowest N retention was obtained for the control group, althoughabsorption was not markedly different among the treatment groups.Total P and N loading (kg/ton production) produced fromthe experimental diets ranged from 7.1 to 8.9 and from 36.1 to 41.3,respectively, whereas the corresponding values for the control dietwere 15.2 and 48.1.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Department of Aquatic Biosciences,Tokyo University of Fisheries, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan
Publication date: 2003-04-01