The effect of dietary vitamin K (phylloquinone and menadione) levels on the vertebral formation in mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus
The effect of different dosages of vitamin K, either as phylloquinone or menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB), on vertebrae formation during growth of mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus was investigated. Diets without vitamin K caused a significantly higher incidence of bone deformity in fish than diets supplemented with MSB or phylloquinone (P < 0.01). These results indicate that vitamin K is essential for mummichog. A massive dose of MSB caused a high incidence of bone deformity compared with a lower dose, while an increased dose of phylloquinone brought about no significant difference in deformity incidence. The vertebral deformity was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in fish fed a vitamin K-free diet (Control Group) and MSB-supplemented diet (Group MSB25) compared to fish fed a phylloquinone-supplemented diet (Group PK1). These results indicate that phylloquinone is more suitable than MSB as a vitamin K source in fish feed.