Summary Adhesion of circulating cells to the arterial surface is among the first detectable events in atherogenesis. Cellular adhesion molecules, expressed by the vascular endothelium and by circulating leucocytes, mediate cell recruitment and their transendothelial migration. Platelet endothelial cellular adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1/CD31), involved in this migration, has been associated with the developmental course of atherosclerosis. A few studies have investigated an association between coronary heart disease and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in functionally important domains of the PECAM-1/CD31 gene. In particular, Ser563Asn and Gly670Arg SNPs have been described as susceptibility factors involved in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Japanese male population. To confirm these observations, we studied 96 male patients (mean age 40 years; age range 20–46) affected by AMI and 118 healthy male controls (mean age 38 years, age range: 20–55), and analysed for the following PECAM-1/CD31 SNPs: Val125Leu, Asn563Ser and Gly670Arg. The frequency of the Gly670Arg polymorphism was significantly higher in patients with AMI (58.9% vs. 48.3%; P = 0.019), whereas the frequencies of the other two SNPs (Leu125Val and Ser563Asn) were not significantly different between patients and controls. By comparing the observed number of 670Arg/Arg genotypes in the patients with the expected number, calculated from the allele frequency in a healthy population, a significance of P = 0.02 (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% CI: 1.1–3.7) was obtained, supporting a recessive model of inheritance. Hence, the differences between patients and controls are significant, but relatively small. However, as AMI is a multifactorial disease, any single mutation will only provide a small or modest contribution to the risk, which also depends on environmental interaction. All in all, we believe that the results of the present study would add support to the role of pro/anti-inflammatory genotypes in determining susceptibility or resistance to immune-inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis.