The molecular interaction of human salivary histatins with polyphenolic compounds
Source: FEBS Journal, Volume 268, Number 16, August 2001 , pp. 4384-4397(14)
Abstract:Dietary tannins are polyphenols that are effectively precipitated by salivary histatins (Hsts), a novel family of tannin binding proteins. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a flavan-3-ol ester related to condensed tannins (polymerized products of flavan-3-ols), and pentagalloyl glucose (PGG), a hydrolyzable tannin, were used to evaluate the molecular nature of Hst–polyphenol interaction. NMR demonstrated that Hst5, a representative Hst, bound to EGCG in a hydrophobic manner via basic and aromatic residues. In contrast, proline plays a dominant role in polyphenol binding to other tannin precipitating proteins. The role of basic and aromatic amino acids in EGCG binding was investigated using a series of modified Hsts in each of which one type of amino acid was substituted by Ala. EGCG bound to all modified Hsts, but the binding was diminished. Optimal EGCG binding also depended on the primary structure, as a polypeptide with randomised Hst5 sequence showed significantly diminished interaction with EGCG. Soluble EGCG/Hst5 complexes containing up to seven molecules of EGCG per mol of Hst5 had a 1-mmdissociation constant. In contrast to EGCG, PGG formed small soluble complexes with Hst5 consisting of only one molecule each of PGG and Hst5, as demonstrated by analytical ultracentrifugation. These complexes became insoluble upon binding of additional molecules of PGG. Diminished PGG binding was seen to a peptide with a Hst5 randomized sequence showing the importance of the primary structure. Hsts may serve to form insoluble complexes with tannins thereby preventing their absorption from the intestines and potentially harmful biological effects. In contrast the much weaker interaction with EGCG may allow its uptake into the organism and exploitation of its antioxidant effect.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: August 1, 2001