Relationship of site and stand characteristics to Armillaria root disease incidence on ponderosa pine in the Black Hills, South Dakota
Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Black Hills National Forest, SD, USA, was surveyed for Armillaria root disease (ARD). The root pathogen Armillaria ostoyae occurred on ponderosa pine seedlings, saplings, pole‐size trees and large‐diameter trees. The mean incidence of aboveground disease symptoms by stem count was low (0.2%), but in certain areas, the incidence was higher, affecting the regeneration success and tree longevity. Symptomatic ponderosa pine were in areas characterized by having higher elevation, greater annual precipitation, more seedlings, bigger large‐diameter trees and greater odds of past harvesting activity than in areas without root disease. Stump density was positively spatially correlated with root disease incidence. No particular soil type was related to disease occurrence; though, in areas with symptomatic trees, soil available water holding capacity (AWC) was greater and soil permeability was less where root disease was present. Spatial analysis confirmed the relationships found in linear correlations, with soil AWC and stump density positively and soil permeability negatively correlated with per cent infected stems ha−1 and basal area infected.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1177, USA 2: Department of Forest, Rangeland and Watershed Stewardship, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA 3: USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Management, Denver, CO, USA
Publication date: 2012-04-01