Summary The aim of this study was to identify fungi associated with Cryphalus piceae on European silver fir (Abies alba) in Poland and to test the pathogenicity of selected isolates. Fungi were isolated from five populations of overwintered adults and their galleries. A great diversity of taxa was associated with C. piceae. In total, 2487 isolates, including 58 species distributed in 25 genera, were obtained. The two most frequently isolated fungi, an undescribed species of the genus Geosmithia and Ophiostoma piceae, appeared to be specifically associated with C. piceae, whereas Pesotum fragrans, Pesotum sp. and Sporothrix sp. were sporadically associated. Two-year-old seedlings of silver fir were wound-inoculated with three species of fungi (Geosmithia sp., O. piceae and Pesotum sp.) recovered from C. piceae. Only Pesotum sp. showed pathogenic ability, but we do not consider it to be an important pathogen of A. alba.