Evaluation of Juglans species for resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi: differences in isolate virulence and response to fosetyl-Al
Phytophthora is considered as an important pathogen on walnut, and severe losses are reported in European as well as in American walnut stands. Though several Phytophthora spp. are known to attack walnut, P. cinnamomi is considered the most virulent and widespread in southern Europe. Up to now, no walnut species or hybrid is known to have a high resistance level towards P. cinnamomi. Efforts are addressed in finding rootstock material graft compatible with English walnut and resistant/tolerant to P. cinnamomi. The extension of P. cinnamomi lesions on five Juglans species was studied to find out sources of resistance/tolerance to this pathogen. Walnut species clustered into two main groups, J. hindsii, J. nigra, and J. mandshurica were the less susceptible to the colonization of P. cinnamomi, while J. regia and J. sieboldiana were the most susceptible. On this account, J. mandshurica represents the best alternative as rootstock because its employment overcomes the risk of the occurrence of black line disease, it has good level of resistance to Agrobacterium temefaciens and Brenneria nigrifluens, and it is tolerant to Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis. J. mandshurica is also compatible in cross-pollinations with J. regia and J. nigra. Differences in virulence of P. cinnamomi isolates was assessed and a marked interaction between species and isolate emerged. Treatment with fosetyl-Al by dipping was mainly efficient in reducing the length P. cinnamomi lesions, and an interaction between species and treatment was evident with the highest efficacy on J. regia and J. sieboldiana.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: C.R.A.-Centro di Ricerca per la Patologia Vegetale (CRA-PAV), Via C. G. Bertero, 22, 00156 Roma, Italy 2: I.N.R.A., 400 Route des Chappes, BP 167, 06903 Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France
Publication date: June 1, 2009