Effects of associated fungi Sclerophoma pythiophila and Cenangium ferruginosum on Gremmeniella abietina dieback in Spain
The interactions between Gremmeniella abietina and either Sclerophoma pythiophila or Cenangium ferruginosum, fungi frequently isolated from diseased twigs along with G. abietina, were studied under laboratory (dual cultures) and greenhouse conditions (double-inoculations). Virulence of each species was also evaluated in greenhouse experiments by means of single-inoculations. In vitro interactions were assessed on Petri dishes containing malt agar with pine needle extract, and greenhouse experiments were performed on 1-year-old Pinus halepensis seedlings. In vitro growth of G. abietina was inhibited by both fungi when grown in dual culture. In single-inoculations, G. abietina caused the greatest necrosis length on P. halepensis seedlings, followed by S. pythiophila, whereas C. ferruginosum did not cause significant necrosis. In double-inoculations, C. ferruginosum was able to reduce the length of necrosis caused by G. abietina on the P. halepensis seedlings. In contrast, necrosis length was greater in seedlings inoculated with both S. pythiophila and G. abietina than in those inoculated with G. abietina alone. Therefore, S. pythiophila seems to play a role in disease expression caused by G. abietina on P. halepensis in Spain.
Document Type: Research Article
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Publication date: April 1, 2007