Summary Ecological studies in New Zealand require consideration of the impact of exotic (introduced) organisms from disparate environments. A survey of Ophiostoma species isolated and identified from Pinus radiata stumps, the bark beetle Hylastes ater collected from these stumps and from P. radiata seedlings following sublethal damage by H. ater, was undertaken in 10 reforestation sites in New Zealand. Nine Ophiostoma species were isolated and identified in this survey. Ophiostoma galeiformis and Ophiostoma huntii were isolated most frequently from all the substrates sampled. Ophiostoma floccosum, Ophiostoma setosum, Leptographium procerum and Leptographium truncatum were also isolated from stumps, damaged seedlings and beetles. Ophiostoma quercus was only isolated from stumps and beetles and Ophiostoma ips only from beetles. A strong relationship between the severity of H. ater feeding damage, and the presence and number of species of Ophiostoma was found. Eight Ophiostoma species were transmitted by H. ater to P. radiata seedlings in laboratory transmission experiments. From the results of this field survey and the laboratory experiments we confirm that H. ater is a vector of Ophiostoma species to P. radiata seedlings in New Zealand.