Summary This study dealt with the species distribution and frequency of fungi associated with the bark beetle Ips typographus (Scolytidae) on spruce trees of various states of health in southern Poland. The spruce trees were assessed by their degree of defoliation and damage of their crowns and trunks after attack by I. typographus. The state of health of trees from which samples were obtained was related to varying stages of brood development of I. typographus. Fungi were isolated from phloem taken from and around insect galleries and the sapwood underneath brood systems. Samples were taken from ‘healthy-looking’, weakened, wind-fallen and wind-broken trees as well as from trap trees. The mycobiota associated with I. typographus was quite diverse in respect of the number of detected species, 65 fungal taxa were obtained from the phloem of trees infested by I. typographus, and 36 taxa occurred in the sapwood underneath insect galleries. The spectrum of fungi mainly consisted of ascomycetes and anamorphic fungi. The ophiostomatoid fungi were represented by 14 species and were the most numerously represented group in all niches examined. The most frequent ophiostomatoid species were Ceratocystis polonica, Ophiostoma ainoae, O. bicolor, O. penicillatum, O. piceae and O. piceaperdum. The frequency of occurrence of ophiostomatoid fungi differed significantly between the phloem and sapwood as well as in relation to the varying states of health of the spruce trees. These quantitative differences in the mycobiota of I. typographus between spruce trees belonging to different health categories can be explained by successional patterns of fungal colonization of host tissues following attack by I. typographus. The pathogenic species C. polonica was the primary invader, occurring most frequently in the sapwood of ‘healthy-looking’ trees. Ophiostoma bicolor, O. penicillatum and O. piceaperdum also occurred during the early stages of brood development of I. typographus on ‘healthy-looking’ trees, but they mainly colonized the phloem. In contrast, O. ainoae, O. minuta and O. piceae likely follow the aforementioned species as secondary and tertiary invaders into the phloem and the sapwood of spruce trees.