Successful reconstitution of the non-regenerating adult telencephalon by cell transplantation in Xenopus laevis
The South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) can regenerate the anterior half of the telencephalon only during larval life, but such regeneration is no longer possible after metamorphosis. In order to gain a better understanding of differences between larvae and adults that are potentially related to regeneration, several experiments were conducted on larvae and froglets after the partial removal of the telencephalon. As a result, it was found that the cells in the brain proliferated actively, even in non-regenerating froglets, just as was observed in regenerating larvae after the partial removal of the telencephalon. Moreover, it was shown that although the structure was usually imperfect, even isolated single cells derived from the frog brain were able to reconstitute the lost portion when the cells were transplanted to the partially truncated telencephalon. It is therefore likely to be critical for massive organ regeneration that ependymal layer cells promptly cover the cerebral lateral ventricles at an initial stage of wound healing, as is the case observed in larvae. However, in froglets, these cells strongly adhere to one another, and they are therefore unable to move to seal off the exposed ventricle, which in turn is likely to render the froglet brain non-regenerative.
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