Limited phylogeographic structure in the flightless ground beetle, Calathus ruficollis, in southern California
The California Floristic Province is home to more than 8000 species of beetles, yet their geographical patterns of supra- and infraspecific diversity remain largely unexplored. In this paper, we investigate the phylogeography and population demographics of a flightless ground beetle, Calathus ruficollis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), in southern California. We sampled 136 specimens from 25 localities divided into 10 populations using a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene. We tested several hypotheses, including the association of geography with particular clades and populations, the degree of differentiation among regions, and the expansion of populations. Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses along with nested clade analysis andamovaindicate a deep split between the southern Sierra Nevada population and populations south and west. This split corresponds closely to the split between subspecies C. ruficollis ignicollis (southern Sierra Nevada) and C. ruficollis ruficollis. Populations otherwise exhibit limited geographical structure, though Fstvalues indicate some local differentiation. Mismatch distributions and Fu's Fsindicate range expansion of several populations, suggesting that some structure may have been obscured by recent exchange. The population of C. ruficollis on Santa Cruz Island, which might have been expected to be isolated, shares several haplotypes with mainland populations, appearing to represent multiple colonizations.