Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis collected from five centers in Brazil, 1997–98
Methods Isolates were collected from five centers in Brazil during 1997–98, and susceptibility testing was conducted at a central laboratory according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards criteria.
Results Of the 359Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates tested, 77% were susceptible, 19% were intermediate and 4% were resistant to penicillin. The susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to other -lactams and macrolides was greater than 90%, but cotrimoxazole was active against only 48% of the isolates. The prevalence of susceptible isolates was 100.0% for vancomycin and 99.7% for levofloxacin. -Lactam, macrolide, and cotrimoxazole activities were negatively associated with penicillin resistance. Of the 219 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae tested, 11% produced -lactamase and 11% were not susceptible to ampicillin. Nearly all H. influenzae isolates were susceptible to all other drugs, except cotrimoxazole (47% susceptibility). Of the 52 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates, 98% produced -lactamase, and the MIC of all drugs was 4 mg/L, with the exception of ampicillin, where the MIC90 was> 8 mg/L.
Conclusions When these data are compared with previous reports, our findings suggest that the prevalence of pneumococci that are resistant to agents such as penicillin and cotrimoxazole may be increasing in Brazil, which highlights the need to continue surveillance programs.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: MRL Pharmaceutical Services, Herndon, VA, USA, 2: MRL Pharmaceutical Services, Brentwood, TN, USA, 3: MRL Pharmaceutical Services, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 4: Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, 5: Laboratorio Fleury, Hospital das Clinicas Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 6: Hospital A.C. Carmargo, Camargo, 7: Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, and 8: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Publication date: 01 April 2000