Kaposi’s sarcoma-like lesions and other nodules as cutaneous involvement in AIDS-related visceral leishmaniasis
A 40-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive man had three relapses of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In the third he developed nodular skin lesions of three types, some reminiscent of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Biopsy of each type disclosed abundant dermal macrophages with a huge number of intracellular and extracellular Leishman–Donovan bodies. Rapid improvement of lesions was achieved after antiparasitic treatment. AIDS leads to atypical forms of leishmaniasis. Leishmania has been detected both in normal and pathological skin of these patients due to dissemination during VL. It is suspected that a considerable proportion of the population may be infected in endemic areas, Leishmania being opportunistic in immunosuppressed individuals. It is important to recognize the range of lesions that may occur in patients with HIV and VL, many of which are non-specific and may cause diagnostic difficulty.
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