Phylogenetic relationships among migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) populations in different climatic regions were analysed by sequencing four mitochondrial DNA regions, with special reference to the origin of Japanese populations. The populations are clearly separated into two clades: one consists of individuals from temperate and cold-temperate areas of Japan and the Chinese continent, and the other comprises those from subtropical islands of Japan, Hainan Island in China, Timol Leste, Australia, Ethiopia, France, and some individuals from Tsushima Island and Honshu of Japan. The divergence time between the two clades is estimated to be 0.86–1.89 Mya. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that Japanese L. migratoria populations were composed of individuals of six different origins: (1) Hokkaido populations possibly from the Russian continent; (2) Honshu–Kyushu populations from the Chinese continent; (3) Southwest Island populations from Hainan Island or adjacent areas; (4) Ogasawara populations that might have originated from Micronesia; (5) part of the Tsushima population that originated from somewhere in the Asian tropics; and (6) a possible relict population of ancient southern haplotypes that exists in western areas of northern Honshu. The Tsugaru Straits and Tokara Straits have acted as effective geographical barriers, as in other organisms, isolating locust populations for a few thousand years. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 99, 570–581.
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Document Type: Research Article
Locust Research Laboratory, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences at Ohwashi, 305-8634 Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
Laboratory of Entomology, College of Resources and Environment – Central South Forestry University, Changsha, 412005 Hunan, China
Publication date: 2010-03-01