Effects of the mixture of avermectin and imidacloprid on mortality and developmental stability of Copera annulata (Odonata: Zygoptera) larvae
The present study explored the effects of mixture of avermectin and imidacloprid on the level of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and mortality of Copera annulata larvae. The results showed that the mortality of larval damselflies treated with different concentrations of insecticide did not differ significantly. However, we found that the levels of FA of two traits were significantly different with different treatments but the others did not show any differences. Explicitly, FA of two traits increased with increasing pesticide concentration. There was a significantly negative relationship between first femur length and the absolute difference between its right and left sides. There was no relationship with respect to the absolute difference between the right and left sides of all traits and their body size. FA was not associated with mortality. Our results emphasized that insecticide had potential effects on bilaterally symmetrical traits of damselfly larvae, although they were no longer treated with insecticide during the last rearing. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 96, 44–50.
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