Abstract Liu, S. and Hua, B. 2009. Histology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands and salivary pumps in the scorpionfly Panorpa obtusa (Mecoptera: Panorpidae). —Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 457–465. The morphology, histology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands and salivary pumps in the scorpionfly Panorpa obtusa Cheng 1949 were investigated using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands display a distinct sexual dimorphism. The female has only two small sac-like glands located in the prothorax, while the male possesses six long tubular glands extending into the sixth abdominal segment. The male salivary glands can be divided into five distinct regions. The apical long, thin secretory region possesses numerous secretory cells containing large secretory vesicles; the salivary reservoir expands in diameter, accumulating and temporarily storing the saliva in addition to secreting saliva; the constricted region contains prismatic cells with complex infolded plasma membrane; the sac has an internal brush border to absorb water and ions; the common salivary duct contains longitudinal muscles in the male, but not in the female. The salivary pump possesses independent strong dorsal muscles and abundant internal palm spines near its orifice. The anatomy and ultrastructure of the salivary glands and the salivary pump of scorpionflies as well as their possible functions are briefly discussed.