Abstract Bhattacharyya, S., Dey, R. and Maitra, S.K. 2005. Photoperiodic regulation of annual testicular events in the Indian major carp Catla catla. — Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 86: 71–79 The importance of photoperiods in the regulation of annual testicular events in the carp Catla catla was evaluated by subjecting them to either long (16 h light : 8 h dark) or short (8 h light : 16 h dark) photoperiods for 30 days during the preparatory, prespawning, spawning and postspawning phases of an annual gonadal cycle. In each reproductive phase, testicular responsiveness to subjected photoperiods was determined by comparing the gonadal status in corresponding groups of control or natural photoperiodic fish. The values of testicular weight, gametogenic index, as well as testicular activity of two steroidogenic enzymes (Δ53β-, and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), and the serum titre of testosterone were considered as the indices of functional status of the testis in the fish concerned. During the prespawning phase, exposure of fish to a daily long photoperiod schedule resulted in precocious maturation of testis, while retardation of testicular growth was noted under the influences of short photoperiod. However, none of the employed photo-schedules could influence the gametogenic and steroidogenic functions of the testis in the remaining part of the gonadal cycle. Collectively, the present study provides evidence for the first time that in the case of a commercially important carp, Catla catla, artificial, long photoperiods may be used for advanced testicular maturation, while reductions in maturation-associated growth and deterioration in flesh quality may be avoided by submitting the fish to shorter day lengths during the prespawning phase of the reproductive cycle.