The structure of a triple mutant of pI258 arsenate reductase from Staphylococcus aureus and its 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid adduct
Structural insights into formation of the complex between the ubiquitous thiol–disulfide oxidoreductase thioredoxin and its oxidized substrate are under-documented owing to its entropical instability. In vitro, it is possible via a reaction with 5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) to make a stable mixed-disulfide complex between thioredoxin from Staphylococcus aureus and one of its substrates, oxidized pI258 arsenate reductase (ArsC) from S. aureus. In the absence of the crystal structure of an ArsC–thioredoxin complex, the structures of two precursors of the complex, the ArsC triple mutant ArsC C10SC15AC82S and its 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB) adduct, were determined. The ArsC triple mutant has a structure very similar to that of the reduced form of wild-type ArsC, with a folded redox helix and a buried catalytic Cys89. In the adduct form, the TNB molecule is buried in a hydrophobic pocket and the disulfide bridge between TNB and Cys89 is sterically inaccessible to thioredoxin. In order to form a mixed disulfide between ArsC and thioredoxin, a change in the orientation of the TNB–Cys89 disulfide in the structure is necessary.