ABSTRACT The ostrich is an important animal in many livestock industries. A significant threat to this industry is losses from diseases. Newcastle disease is a notifiable, highly contagious viral infection of ostriches. Avian influenza may be transmitted from waterfowl, shorebirds and gulls to ostriches. Borna disease virus is a viral neurotropic infection spread mainly by rodents and felines. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a viral disease transmitted by Hyalomma ticks to humans. Avipoxvirus afflicts ostrich chicks and is transmitted by mosquitoes or by direct contact with a pox lesion. Maintenance of a healthy and profitable enterprise requires the implementation, with assistance from the local veterinary authority, of comprehensive, practical and effective methods of health management and preventative medicine.