The role of caveolin-1 in cardiovascular regulation
Caveolae are omega-shaped membrane invaginations present in essentially all cell types in the cardiovascular system, and numerous functions have been ascribed to these structures. Caveolae formation depends on caveolins, cholesterol and polymerase I and transcript release factor-Cavin (PTRF-Cavin). The current review summarizes and critically discusses the cardiovascular phenotypes reported in caveolin-1-deficient mice. Major changes in the structure and function of heart, lung and blood vessels have been documented, suggesting that caveolae play a critical role at the interface between blood and surrounding tissue. According to an emerging paradigm, many of these changes are secondary to uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Thus, nitric oxide synthase not only synthesizes more nitric oxide in the absence of caveolin-1, but also more superoxide with potential pathogenic consequences. It is further argued that the vasodilating drive from increased nitric oxide production in caveolin-1-deficient mice is balanced by changes in the vascular media that favour increased dynamic resistance regulation. Harnessing the therapeutic opportunities buried in caveolae, while challenging, could expand the arsenal of treatment options in cancer, lung disease and atherosclerosis.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Division of Vascular and Airway Research, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
Publication date: February 1, 2009